Sporrels do not age in a state of extreme dehydration

Sponges do not age in a state of extreme dehydration

Rotifers, nematodes and non-sporocysts are invertebrates in which the arrest or extreme slowing of the aging process occurs in a state of anhydrobiosis, a reduction in vital activity due to lack of water. Understanding their life strategies could be crucial for medicine, biotechnology or astrobiology, researchers say.

Anhydrobiosis (from the Greek „life without water”) was first described in 1702. By Dutch naturalist Antoni van Leeuwenhoek. It is currently defined as a strategy for surviving extreme dehydration (dehydration) without negative consequences in the form of rotion of tissue damage or comorkowe. However, despite the increasing number of studies on the substrate of comorkowe or physiological anhydrobiosis, the phenomenon is still far from being explained.

Researchers from Poland and Italy have collected and omowili all currently available information on the effects of anhydrobiosis on the aging process of non-sporidiansow, nematodes and rotifersoin an article „Staying young and fit? Ontogenetic and phylogenetic consequences of animal anhydrobiosis” published in a prestigious zoological journal „Journal of Zoology”.

The progressive deterioration of the body’s capacity with age, or aging, is considered a basic principle and a common feature of the organism’soin living things, regardless of how they reproduce and the number of cells that build themorek. However, – according to scientistsow – it seems that this inevitability of aging does not apply to someorych organismow z roThe research will, in their opinion, have a positive impact on theoboth in plants and animals.

– Amongod of them seem to be most interested in invertebrates, with particularolnym consideration of nematodesow, capable of cryptobiosis, including its best-known form called anhydrobiosis,” emphasizes wspoauthor of the article prof. Lukasz Kaczmarek of the University of Adam Mickiewicz in Warsaw. Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań.

Significantly – according to the authoroin the article – the ability to go into anhydrobiosis and successfully exit this state at any point in life, including roalso after reaching sexual maturity, has so far been recorded for only three types ofoin invertebratesoin: wrotkoin (Rotifera), nematodes (Nematoda) and non-scorchersow (Tardigrada).

– According to the widely accepted hypothesis, anhydrobiosis underlies the shutdown or slowdown of metabolism, which may explain the arrest or slowdown of the aging process observed in therotkesow, nematodes and non-corporalow. This, in turn, may wspołwould improve the condition of these animals, increase their fecundity and enhance the longevity of their offspring,” stressed wspohe author of the article prof. Hanna Kmita of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan.

To explain the effect of anhydrobiosis on the aging process in these invertebratesoIn the proposed two models, whichorych names allude to classic stories, i.e. „Sleeping Kroleft” i „Portrait of Dorian Gray”.

As explained by prof. Kmita, as predicted by these models, in an organism undergoing anhydrobiosis, external signs of aging do not appear (Sleeping Kroleft) or their severity is dependent on the duration of anhydrobiosis ie. as it continues, the rate of aging decreases (Portrait of Dorian Gray). As can be seen from the published data, in the case of most invertebratesow, in whichohe effects of anhydrobiosis on aging have been studied, seems to dominate the model of „Sleeping Kroleft”.

– However, these models do not resolve whether anhydrobiosis directly affects the mechanisms underlying aging, or whether by inhibiting the putative causes of death it indirectly contributes to life extension, added Prof. Kmita.

The implications of the predictions of these models, however, have not yet been studied in the context of survival and life expectancy of individualolnych individualsow, and the effect this may have on the evolution of these organismsow.

According to the researchers, it seems that the accompanying slowing or stopping of the aging process in anhydrobiosis may also slow down evolution, as it extends the time required for the next generation to emerge. – Such a slowing effect of anhydrobiosis seems to be evident in the weak zroThe morphological differentiation of representatives of rotifersow i niesporczakoin terrestrials,” explained Prof. Łukasz Kaczmarek.

Scientists argue that understanding the life strategies used by rotifers, non-corals and nematodes, on roThe different levels of organization of their organismoInvertebrates, may be of crucial importance for medicine, biotechnology or astrobiology. This is because it will allow the development of effective methods of storing biological material, as well as controlling the rate of processoIn biological.

– Potential applications appear to be plentiful, with the long-standing storage of the organow for transplantation, by extending life, and on the subrospace applications concluding,” concluded Prof. Kaczmarek.

Researchers at the University of. Hanna Kmita of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, under the direction of Prof. Hanna Kmita and Prof. The researchers, led by Prof. Lukasz Kaczmarek, are currently testing the hypothesis of a „Sleeping Krolewny” on non-corchids. For now, they do not want to reveal the detailedołow, although – in their opinion – this research will certainly have far-reaching consequences for the understanding of the aging process of non-corchidoin, but not only those organismsow.